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This lower pricing makes a ruby an appealing alternative to a diamond for an engagement ring or other jewelry. For example, this 1.
Very high-end rubies can be far more expensive — in some cases, either as expensive or more expensive than diamonds of the same size.
Like diamonds, rubies are assessed using certain quality factors. Of these, the most important, by far, is color. The stronger and more intense the color, the more valuable the ruby.
Finally, like with all gemstones, the carat weight of a ruby plays a role in its value, with a larger ruby commanding a higher value than a smaller one.
An exceptionally high-quality ruby that combines rich, natural color with other quality factors is exceptionally rare and often worth an incredible amount.
For example, this stunning As with emeralds , the most important factor when evaluating a ruby is its color. The deeper, and more intense the color, the more desirable the ruby.
The best ruby color is typically thought of as a deep, vivid red. However, rubies can look stunning in other colors, such as pink or brown-red. Hue refers to where the ruby falls in the spectrum of other colors.
Each ruby has a primary and secondary color. The primary color is red, and the secondary color is usually orange, purple or pink. Some rubies mined from specific parts of the world are known to have certain secondary colors, such as rubies from Myanmar, which are known to have a slight purple secondary color.
Purple as a secondary color can actually be better in a ruby because it makes the red appear richer.
Color tip: set a purplish red ruby in yellow gold , like they do in Burma. The yellow color will neutralize the blue in the purple, making the ruby appear even more red.
This brings us to our last color criterion, saturation. Also, rubies that fluoresce glow in ultraviolet light can have even greater saturation.
It should go without saying that if the color of a ruby is by far the most important factor, it would be crazy to even consider buying a ruby sight unseen.
This is the only way, for example, that gemologists can distinguish between pink sapphires and rubies. But it also leaves some room for error, so beware of these murky waters if someone is trying to sell you a ruby that looks a lot more to you like a pink sapphire!
Clarity refers to the number, size, color, location, and quality of imperfections in the ruby, which are known as inclusions.
When a gemologist measures the clarity of a diamond, they use 10x magnification to get a super-magnified view of the inside of the stone.
Sri Lankan ruby is strongly fluorescent, and asterism is common. Star stone , Sri Lankan star ruby, oval cabochon, 1. The main attraction of ruby from Thailand and Cambodia is its high clarity , but the flat crystal shapes generally yield overly shallow stones.
Due to a high iron content, which quenches fluorescence, most of these rubies tend to have a garnet -red color. The others appear blackish, as in red garnets.
Thai stones are actually less purple than most Myanmar rubies. However, Myanmar-type rubies appear red all over the stone. A rich red is seen not only in the areas where total internal reflection occurs but also in other facets, due to the red fluorescence and light-scattering silk of Myanmar rubies.
Some people actually preferred them. Today, production from Thailand and Cambodia is negligible. Occasionally, one might hear statements about how Cambodian stones are superior to those from across the border in Thailand.
However, bear in mind that the deposits are essentially one that straddles the border. Ruby, Thailand 2. Madagascar produces mainly fine blue and pink sapphires.
However, two important ruby deposits have also been discovered. Vatomandry is said to produce better-quality material, lighter and brighter more reminiscent of Myanmar , while the Andilamena material is somewhat darker and not as clean.
Rutile silk seen in some pieces suggests that star stones may be forthcoming. Most stones from both deposits are heat-treated.
Octagonal step-cut ruby, 2. Stones from Kenya and Tanzania are magnificent when clean, but facet-grade material is rare.
Like Myanmar, much of this material is strongly fluorescent. These deposits have produced no star stones. In , rubies were discovered in Montepuez, Mozambique.
This deposit is becoming an important source of rubies. Untreated 1. The Jegdalek deposit in Afghanistan has produced rubies that rank with fine Mogok stones, but facetable material is in short supply.
Many of these stones contain small areas of blue color. They are also strongly fluorescent. If this deposit ever produces clean material, the market will surely take notice.
Rubies on matrix , 1. Nepal is a relatively new source of rubies. A goat herder discovered ruby in the mountains in the s.
The clarity of Nepalese ruby is usually low to mid-commercial, although gemmy crystals do exist.
Typically, Nepalese crystals weigh 5 carats or less and have heavy color zoning, from pure red to pinkish-purplish red.
Vietnam had significant discoveries north of Hanoi in and in Luc Yen in Between November and March , one Vietnamese deposit produced more than 3 million carats of ruby and pink sapphire.
Word spread quickly in the trade that the color of the finest material was comparable with that from Myanmar. Retrieved December 23, Archived from the original on March 30, Retrieved March 30, Minerals: their constitution and origin.
Cambridge, U. Brunswick House Press. Bangkok, Thailand: Gemlab Inc. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft in German.
Deutschen Gemmologischen Gesellschaft. GIA Global Dispatch. Gemological Institute of America. February 16, Archived from the original on June 14, Retrieved January 22, Archived from the original on September 27, Retrieved August 19, Bibcode : Natur.
Archived from the original on August 19, Archived from the original on March 9, Retrieved February 28, Archived from the original on July 29, Retrieved November 8, Retrieved on Archived from the original on December 29, Retrieved March 17, May 13, Archived from the original on May 13, Retrieved May 13, Ruby from Burma is famous for its exceptional coloring, and has traditionally produced the finest Rubies.
However, Burmese Ruby rarely exceeds several carats; large flawless Burmese Rubies can be worth millions of dollars.
Heat-treating a Ruby can also increase its transparency by removing tiny internal flaw s. Inclusions of tiny, slender, parallel Rutile needles in Ruby cause a polished gem to exhibit asterism.
A Ruby displaying asterism is known as a " Star Ruby ", and if transparent can be very highly prized. Star Rubies exists in six ray stars, though twelve ray stars are also known.
Rubies must be have good transparency to possess gem value. Opaque or semi-opaque Rubies have relatively little value, even if they display asterism.
The same Rutile inclusions that are responsible for asterism in certain Rubies can also decrease transparency and cause a hazy effect known as silk.
Though Ruby can be one the most expensive gemstones, it also comes in more dull opaque forms that are fairly inexpensive, and are often polished into cabochon s.
A unique gemstone form composed of opaque red Ruby in contrasting green Zoisite is well known from Tanzania, and is used as a minor gemstone and can be carved into ornaments.
The color of Ruby is usually caused by minute inclusion s of the metal chromium. These impurities are often responsible for causing a Ruby to fluorescent , which can be helpful in its identification.
Ruby is also pleochroic , and will sometimes display a lighter and more intense color when viewed at different angles.
Ruby is a tough and durable gem, and the only natural gemstone harder than Ruby is Diamond. Despite this, Ruby is still subject to chipping and fracture if handled roughly, and care should be taken to ensure it is properly handled.
Ruby was first synthesized in Ruby is the birthstone for July and the gem for the 15th and 40th anniversaries. On May 12, , a There are a number of processes used to alter the color, apparent clarity, or improve the durability of gems.
Some gemstones have synthetic counterparts that have essentially the same chemical, physical, and optical properties, but are grown by man in a laboratory.
Any gem can be imitated—sometimes by manmade materials or by natural materials chosen by man to impersonate a particular gem. Fine ruby glows with intense red in sunlight thanks to red fluorescence, which intensifies its red color.
The first laser was created in using the red fluorescence light emitted by ruby. Chromium causes ruby's red.