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Ming Warriors Cookie banner Video10 Greatest Chinese Generals - Most Badass Generals In Chinese History Ming Warrior Slot Hidden History. The history of Ancient China is one that is shrouded in mystery and enigma. For so many centuries, the Everything is at Stake. The stakes are high in this quest for riches, especially when you consider that the maximum bet Bonus Boost x8. Not only does the. Background. The Ming Emperors from Hongwu to Zhengde continued policies of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty such as hereditary military institutions, dressing themselves and their guards in Mongol-style clothing and hats, promoting archery and horseback riding, and having large numbers of Mongols serve in the Ming military. Please find below the ___ Ming of the NBA answer and solution which is part of Daily Themed Crossword April 5 newbestfriend-themovie.com other players have had difficulties with ___ Ming of the NBA that is why we have decided to share not only this crossword clue but all the Daily Themed Crossword Solutions every single day. Yao Ming (Chinese: 姚明; born September 12, ) is a Chinese basketball executive and former professional player. He played for the Shanghai Sharks of the Chinese Basketball Association (CBA) and the Houston Rockets of the National Basketball Association (NBA). Ming Warriors: 4/ English Redcoats: 3 Captain Billings and the other men heard the blast. They ran back to see what happend, when they saw the sight of the private: his body parts were strewn all over the place, yet his right hand still gripped the apple he saw earlier.
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The Oirat leader Esen Tayisi launched an invasion into Ming China in July The chief eunuch Wang Zhen encouraged the Zhengtong Emperor r.
On 8 September, Esen routed Zhengtong's army, and Zhengtong was captured — an event known as the Tumu Crisis.
However, this scheme was foiled once the emperor's younger brother assumed the throne under the era name Jingtai r. Holding the Zhengtong Emperor in captivity was a useless bargaining chip for the Oirats as long as another sat on his throne, so they released him back into Ming China.
Tianshun proved to be a troubled time and Mongol forces within the Ming military structure continued to be problematic.
On 7 August , the Chinese general Cao Qin and his Ming troops of Mongol descent staged a coup against the Tianshun Emperor out of fear of being next on his purge-list of those who aided him in the Wresting the Gate Incident.
While the Yongle Emperor had staged five major offensives north of the Great Wall against the Mongols and the Oirats, the constant threat of Oirat incursions prompted the Ming authorities to fortify the Great Wall from the late 15th century to the 16th century; nevertheless, John Fairbank notes that "it proved to be a futile military gesture but vividly expressed China's siege mentality.
The financial drain of the Imjin War in Korea against the Japanese was one of the many problems — fiscal or other — facing Ming China during the reign of the Wanli Emperor — In the beginning of his reign, Wanli surrounded himself with able advisors and made a conscientious effort to handle state affairs.
His Grand Secretary Zhang Juzheng —82 built up an effective network of alliances with senior officials. However, there was no one after him skilled enough to maintain the stability of these alliances;  officials soon banded together in opposing political factions.
Over time Wanli grew tired of court affairs and frequent political quarreling amongst his ministers, preferring to stay behind the walls of the Forbidden City and out of his officials' sight.
The Hongwu Emperor forbade eunuchs to learn how to read or engage in politics. Whether or not these restrictions were carried out with absolute success in his reign, eunuchs during the Yongle Emperor's reign — and afterwards managed huge imperial workshops, commanded armies, and participated in matters of appointment and promotion of officials.
Yongle put 75 eunuchs in charge of foreign policy; they traveled frequently to vassal states including Annam, Mongolia, the Ryukyu Islands, and Tibet and less frequently to farther-flung places like Japan and Nepal.
In the later 15th century, however, eunuch envoys generally only traveled to Korea. The eunuchs developed their own bureaucracy that was organized parallel to but was not subject to the civil service bureaucracy.
The eunuch Wei Zhongxian — dominated the court of the Tianqi Emperor r. He ordered temples built in his honor throughout the Ming Empire, and built personal palaces created with funds allocated for building the previous emperor's tombs.
His friends and family gained important positions without qualifications. Wei also published a historical work lambasting and belittling his political opponents.
The Chongzhen Emperor r. The eunuchs built their own social structure, providing and gaining support to their birth clans. Instead of fathers promoting sons, it was a matter of uncles promoting nephews.
The Heishanhui Society in Peking sponsored the temple that conducted rituals for worshiping the memory of Gang Tie, a powerful eunuch of the Yuan dynasty.
The Temple became an influential base for highly placed eunuchs, and continued in a somewhat diminished role during the Qing dynasty. During the last years of the Wanli era and those of his two successors, an economic crisis developed that was centered on a sudden widespread lack of the empire's chief medium of exchange: silver.
The Portuguese first established trade with China in ,  trading Japanese silver for Chinese silk,  and after some initial hostilities gained consent from the Ming court in to settle Macau as their permanent trade base in China.
In the new Tokugawa regime of Japan shut down most of its foreign trade with European powers, cutting off another source of silver coming into China.
These events occurring at roughly the same time caused a dramatic spike in the value of silver and made paying taxes nearly impossible for most provinces.
In the s a string of one thousand copper coins equaled an ounce of silver; by that sum could fetch half an ounce; and, by only one-third of an ounce.
Famines became common in northern China in the early 17th century because of unusually dry and cold weather that shortened the growing season — effects of a larger ecological event now known as the Little Ice Age.
Making matters worse, a widespread epidemic spread across China from Zhejiang to Henan, killing an unknown but large number of people.
A Jurchen tribal leader named Nurhaci r. During the Japanese invasions of Joseon Korea in the s, he offered to lead his tribes in support of the Ming and Joseon army.
This offer was declined, but he was granted honorific Ming titles for his gesture. Recognizing the weakness of Ming authority north of their border, he united all of the adjacent northern tribes and consolidated power in the region surrounding his homeland as the Jurchen Jin dynasty had done previously.
By , Nurhaci's son Huang Taiji renamed his dynasty from the "Later Jin" to the " Great Qing " at Mukden , which had fallen to Qing forces in and was made their capital in Shortly after, the Koreans renounced their long-held loyalty to the Ming dynasty.
A peasant soldier named Li Zicheng mutinied with his fellow soldiers in western Shaanxi in the early s after the Ming government failed to ship much-needed supplies there.
In , masses of Chinese peasants who were starving, unable to pay their taxes, and no longer in fear of the frequently defeated Chinese army, began to form into huge bands of rebels.
The Chinese military, caught between fruitless efforts to defeat the Manchu raiders from the north and huge peasant revolts in the provinces, essentially fell apart.
Unpaid and unfed, the army was defeated by Li Zicheng — now self-styled as the Prince of Shun — and deserted the capital without much of a fight.
On 25 April , Beijing fell to a rebel army led by Li Zicheng when the city gates were opened by rebel allies from within. During the turmoil, the last Ming emperor hanged himself on a tree in the imperial garden outside the Forbidden City.
Seizing opportunity, the Eight Banners crossed the Great Wall after the Ming border general Wu Sangui — opened the gates at Shanhai Pass.
This occurred shortly after he learned about the fate of the capital and an army of Li Zicheng marching towards him; weighing his options of alliance, he decided to side with the Manchus.
On 6 June, the Manchus and Wu entered the capital and proclaimed the young Shunzhi Emperor ruler of China. After being forced out of Xi'an by the Qing, chased along the Han River to Wuchang , and finally along the northern border of Jiangxi province, Li Zicheng died there in the summer of , thus ending the Shun dynasty.
One report says his death was a suicide; another states that he was beaten to death by peasants after he was caught stealing their food.
Despite the loss of Beijing and the death of the emperor, the Ming were not yet totally destroyed. Nanjing, Fujian, Guangdong, Shanxi, and Yunnan were all strongholds of Ming resistance.
However, there were several pretenders for the Ming throne, and their forces were divided. These scattered Ming remnants in southern China after were collectively designated by 19th-century historians as the Southern Ming.
Zhu Shugui proclaimed that he acted in the name of the deceased Yongli Emperor. The Chinese Plain White Banner was also inducted in the Eight Banners.
Later the Qianlong Emperor bestowed the title Marquis of Extended Grace posthumously on Zhu Zhilian in , and the title passed on through twelve generations of Ming descendants until the end of the Qing dynasty in In , after the overthrow of the Qing dynasty in the Xinhai Revolution , some advocated that a Han Chinese be installed as Emperor, either the descendant of Confucius, who was the Duke Yansheng ,      or the Ming dynasty Imperial family descendant, the Marquis of Extended Grace.
Described as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history" by Edwin O.
Reischauer , John K. Fairbank and Albert M. Craig ,  the Ming emperors took over the provincial administration system of the Yuan dynasty, and the thirteen Ming provinces are the precursors of the modern provinces.
Departing from the main central administrative system generally known as the Three Departments and Six Ministries system, which was instituted by various dynasties since late Han BCE — CE , the Ming administration had only one Department, the Secretariat, that controlled the Six Ministries.
Following the execution of the Chancellor Hu Weiyong in , the Hongwu Emperor abolished the Secretariat, the Censorate , and the Chief Military Commission and personally took charge of the Six Ministries and the regional Five Military Commissions.
The Hongwu Emperor sent his heir apparent to Shaanxi in to "tour and soothe" xunfu the region; in the Yongle Emperor commissioned 26 officials to travel the empire and uphold similar investigatory and patrimonial duties.
By these xunfu assignments became institutionalized as " grand coordinators ". Hence, the Censorate was reinstalled and first staffed with investigating censors, later with censors-in-chief.
By , the grand coordinators were granted the title vice censor-in-chief or assistant censor-in-chief and were allowed direct access to the emperor.
Censors had the power to impeach officials on an irregular basis, unlike the senior officials who were to do so only in triennial evaluations of junior officials.
Although decentralization of state power within the provinces occurred in the early Ming, the trend of central government officials delegated to the provinces as virtual provincial governors began in the s.
By the late Ming dynasty, there were central government officials delegated to two or more provinces as supreme commanders and viceroys, a system which reined in the power and influence of the military by the civil establishment.
Governmental institutions in China conformed to a similar pattern for some two thousand years, but each dynasty installed special offices and bureaus, reflecting its own particular interests.
The Ming administration utilized Grand Secretaries to assist the emperor, handling paperwork under the reign of the Yongle Emperor and later appointed as top officials of agencies and Grand Preceptor, a top-ranking, non-functional civil service post, under the Hongxi Emperor r.
The imperial household was staffed almost entirely by eunuchs and ladies with their own bureaus. The eunuchs were divided into different directorates in charge of staff surveillance, ceremonial rites, food, utensils, documents, stables, seals, apparel, and so on.
Although the imperial household was staffed mostly by eunuchs and palace ladies, there was a civil service office called the Seal Office, which cooperated with eunuch agencies in maintaining imperial seals, tallies, and stamps.
The Hongwu emperor from to staffed his bureaus with officials gathered through recommendations only.
After that the scholar-officials who populated the many ranks of bureaucracy were recruited through a rigorous examination system that was initially established by the Sui dynasty — However, the government did exact provincial quotas while drafting officials.
This was an effort to curb monopolization of power by landholding gentry who came from the most prosperous regions, where education was the most advanced.
The expansion of the printing industry since Song times enhanced the spread of knowledge and number of potential exam candidates throughout the provinces.
For young schoolchildren there were printed multiplication tables and primers for elementary vocabulary; for adult examination candidates there were mass-produced, inexpensive volumes of Confucian classics and successful examination answers.
As in earlier periods, the focus of the examination was classical Confucian texts, while the bulk of test material centered on the Four Books outlined by Zhu Xi in the 12th century.
The exams increased in difficulty as the student progressed from the local level, and appropriate titles were accordingly awarded successful applicants.
Officials were classified in nine hierarchic grades, each grade divided into two degrees, with ranging salaries nominally paid in piculs of rice according to their rank.
While provincial graduates who were appointed to office were immediately assigned to low-ranking posts like the county graduates, those who passed the palace examination were awarded a jinshi 'presented scholar' degree and assured a high-level position.
The maximum tenure in office was nine years, but every three years officials were graded on their performance by senior officials.
If they were graded as superior then they were promoted, if graded adequate then they retained their ranks, and if graded inadequate they were demoted one rank.
In extreme cases, officials would be dismissed or punished. Only capital officials of grade 4 and above were exempt from the scrutiny of recorded evaluation, although they were expected to confess any of their faults.
There were over 4, school instructors in county and prefectural schools who were subject to evaluations every nine years.
The Chief Instructor on the prefectural level was classified as equal to a second-grade county graduate. The Supervisorate of Imperial Instruction oversaw the education of the heir apparent to the throne; this office was headed by a Grand Supervisor of Instruction, who was ranked as first class of grade three.
Historians debate whether the examination system expanded or contracted upward social mobility. On the one hand, the exams were graded without regard to a candidate's social background, and were theoretically open to everyone.
In practice, 90 percent of the population was ineligible due to lack of education, but the upper 10 percent had equal chances for moving to the top.
To be successful young men had to have extensive, expensive training in classical Chinese, the use of Mandarin in spoken conversation, calligraphy, and had to master the intricate poetic requirements of the eight-legged essay.
Reddead As the Musketeers look at his dead body while passing by, another Ming Warrior jumps out with his Dao sword and kills one of them with a strike to the neck.
Bluedead The last Musketeer tries to fire his Wheellock Pistol, but it winds up jamming. He throws it aside and pulls out his Rapier. The Ming Warrior tries to attack the Musketeer, but is shoved aside.
The Ming Warrior tries again, but the Musketeer parries and stabs him in the stomach. The Ming Warrior falls to the ground and dies. Reddead The Musketeer hears a yell and turns around, only to find the last Ming Warrior standing on a cliff above him and also armed with a Dao.
The Musketeer climbs up and engages the Ming Warrior in a sword fight. Eventually, the two fighters lock swords. The Musketeer uses this moment of opportunity to pull out his Main Gauche.
He closes in and stabs the Ming Warrior in the stomach with the Main Gauche. He pulls it out and allows the Ming Warrior to fall off the cliff, breaking his spine.
Reddead The Musketeer raises his sword and yells out "Vive le Roi! According to the experts, the most decisive factor in the Musketeers' victory was their armor, as it prevented their opponents from harming their vital spots.
Since this fight focused more in long-range gunsmanship, the fact that the Ming armor offered little to no protection against the Musketeers' guns while the Musketeers' armor was almost impervious to the Ming weaponry ultimately decided the battle.
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Although they do not hold the seals of command, they may serve as senior officers. Some among those who receive investiture in the nobility of merit may occasionally hold the seals of command.
However [because the court] places heavy emphasis on maintaining centralized control of the armies, [the Mongols] do not dare commit misdeeds.
As a consequence, during the Tumu Incident, while there was unrest everywhere, it still did not amount to a major revolt.
Additionally, [the Mongols] were relocated to Guangdong and Guangxi on military campaign. Thus, for more than years, we have had peace throughout the realm.
The dynastic forefathers' policies are the product of successive generations of guarding against the unexpected. The foundations of merit surpass the Sima family founders of the Eastern Jin ten thousand fold.
In a word, one cannot generalize [about the policies towards surrendering barbarians]. Technology and Culture. The Gunpowder Age China, Military Innovation, and the Rise of the West in World History.
Princeton University Press. Retrieved 7 July A Course of Instruction in Ordnance and Gunnery 2 ed. West Point, New York: Thomas Publications.
Brown, G. Buchanan, Brenda J. Coyet, Frederic , Neglected Formosa: a translation from the Dutch of Frederic Coyett's Verwaerloosde Formosa Cressy, David , Saltpeter: The Mother of Gunpowder , Oxford University Press Crosby, Alfred W.
Csete, Anne , Ethnicity, Conflict, and the State in the Early to Mid-Qing Curtis, W. Easton, S. Hadden, R. January Adapted from a talk given to the Geological Society of America on March 25, Harding, Richard , Seapower and Naval Warfare, , UCL Press Limited al-Hassan, Ahmad Y.
Johnson, Norman Gardner. Khan, Iqtidar Alam , "Coming of Gunpowder to the Islamic World and North India: Spotlight on the Role of the Mongols", Journal of Asian History , 30 : 41—5.
Khan, Iqtidar Alam , Gunpowder and Firearms: Warfare in Medieval India , Oxford University Press Khan, Iqtidar Alam , Historical Dictionary of Medieval India , The Scarecrow Press, Inc.
Nicolle, David , The Mongol Warlords: Ghengis Khan, Kublai Khan, Hulegu, Tamerlane Nolan, Cathal J. Papelitzky, Elke , "Naval warfare of the Ming dynasty : A comparison between Chinese military texts and archaeological sources", in Rebecca O'Sullivan; Christina Marini; Julia Binnberg eds.
Proceedings of the Graduate Archaeology at Oxford Conferences — , Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, pp. Partington, J.
Pauly, Roger , Firearms: The Life Story of a Technology , Greenwood Publishing Group. Peers, C. Phillips, Henry Prataps , The History and Chronology of Gunpowder and Gunpowder Weapons c.
Technische Höchstleistungen ihrer Zeit", Technikgeschichte 44 2 : — — Schmidtchen, Volker b , "Riesengeschütze des Technische Höchstleistungen ihrer Zeit", Technikgeschichte 44 3 : — — Sim, Y.
Teddy , The Maritime Defense of China: Ming General Qi Jiguang and Beyond , Springer Swope, Kenneth M. Villalon, L. Williams, Anthony G.
Ming dynasty topics. Luchuan—Pingmian campaigns Tumu Crisis Rebellion of Cao Qin Miao Rebellions Prince of Anhua rebellion Prince of Ning rebellion Malayan—Portuguese war Japanese missions to Ming China Ningbo Incident Great Rites Controversy Renyin Plot Jiajing wokou raids Single whip law.
Jianzhou war Bozhou rebellion Ordos Campaign Japanese invasions of Korea Donglin movement Sino-Dutch conflicts She-An Rebellion Battle of Beijing Qing conquest of the Ming Battle of Shanhai Pass Southern Ming.
Emperor List Family tree Grand Secretariat Eastern Depot Imperial Clan Court Imperial Commissioner Grand coordinator Jinyiwei Tusi.
Army Great Wall Gunpowder weapons Military conquests Nine Garrisons Shenjiying. Manchuria Tibet Vietnam Wokou Yunnan.
History of Yuan The Hundred-word Eulogy Huang-Ming Zuxun Yongle Encyclopedia Collected Statutes of the Ming Dynasty Ming Shilu.
Forbidden City Chaotian Palace Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum Ming Ancestors Mausoleum Ming tombs Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Poetry Painting Four Masters of the Ming dynasty Wu School Zhe school Chinese lacquerware table Ming presentation porcelain Covered jar with carp design Yongning Temple Stele Economy Tai history Islam.
Coinage Hongwu Tongbao Yongle Tongbao Da Ming Baochao. House of Zhu History of Ming Luso-Chinese agreement Ming official headwear.
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